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A Review of Biogeography Lomolino 4th Edition PDF 27 - An Updated and Integrative Textbook on Biogeography

Biogeography Lomolino 4th Edition PDF 27 - A Comprehensive and Integrative Textbook on the Science of Biogeography

Biogeography is the study of the distribution, diversity, and evolution of life on Earth. It explores how biological patterns vary across space and time, how they are shaped by environmental factors and historical events, how they reflect ecological processes and evolutionary mechanisms, and how they inform conservation efforts. Biogeography is a fascinating and interdisciplinary science that draws from fields such as ecology, evolution, geology, climatology, genetics, geography, paleontology, systematics, phylogenetics, statistics, modeling, remote sensing, GIS, among others.

biogeography lomolino 4th edition pdf 27

Biogeography Lomolino 4th Edition PDF 27 is a comprehensive and integrative textbook that covers all aspects of biogeography. It is written by four leading experts in the field: Mark V. Lomolino (SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry), Brett R. Riddle (University of Nevada Las Vegas), Robert J. Whittaker (University of Oxford), and James H. Brown (University of New Mexico). The textbook is divided into seven units, each consisting of several chapters that address a specific theme or topic in biogeography. The textbook is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers and practitioners who are interested in biogeography. It is also suitable for self-study and reference.

The fourth edition of the textbook is updated with over 1000 new publications from the most exciting frontiers of biogeography. It also features new and revised illustrations, maps, tables, boxes, and case studies that enhance the clarity and relevance of the content. The fourth edition also incorporates new pedagogical tools such as learning objectives, summaries, key terms, review questions, and online resources that facilitate learning and comprehension. The fourth edition also reflects the latest developments and debates in biogeography, such as the role of humans in biogeographic change, the integration of phylogenetic and ecological data, the application of biogeographic models and scenarios, and the emergence of conservation biogeography as a subdiscipline.


In this unit, the authors introduce the science of biogeography, its history, its philosophy, its methods, and its current status. They define biogeography as "the study of the geographic distributions of organisms across space (geographic area) and time (geologic history), and of the ecological and evolutionary processes that have produced those distributions" (p. 3). They explain why biogeography is important for understanding biodiversity patterns, evolutionary history, ecological dynamics, environmental change, and conservation challenges. They also outline the main themes and topics covered in the textbook, such as the environmental setting, the history of biogeography, evolutionary biogeography, ecological biogeography, and conservation biogeography.

The Science of Biogeography

In this unit, the authors explore how biogeography relates to other sciences such as ecology, evolution, geology, and climatology. They discuss how biogeography addresses questions such as: How do organisms adapt to different environments? How do species originate and diversify? How do continents move and affect biotic distributions? How do climates change and influence biotic responses? They also describe the basic principles and methods of biogeography, such as: How do biogeographers measure and map species distributions? How do they infer historical events and processes from present-day patterns? How do they test hypotheses and predictions using data and models? How do they address contemporary issues such as biodiversity conservation, climate change, invasive species, and biotic homogenization?

The Environmental Setting and Basic Biogeographic Patterns

In this unit, the authors examine how the physical environment shapes the distribution and diversity of life on Earth. They explain how factors such as solar energy, temperature regimes, wind patterns, precipitation patterns, soil types, oceanic circulation, tides, microenvironments affect climate, soils, and aquatic environments. They also show how species distributions reflect their ecological niches and interactions with other organisms. They introduce concepts such as range boundaries, limiting factors, disturbance regimes, competition, predation, mutualism, multiple interactions. They also describe the major terrestrial and aquatic biomes and communities of the world. They define a biome as "a major regional or global community characterized by distinctive vegetation types or other distinctive features" (p. 163). They define a community as "an association of interacting populations of different species living together in a particular area" (p. 163). They classify terrestrial biomes into 12 types: tropical rain forest; tropical deciduous forest; thorn woodland; tropical savanna; desert; sclerophyllous woodland; subtropical evergreen forest; temperate deciduous forest; temperate rain forest; temperate grassland; boreal forest; tundra. They classify aquatic communities into two types: marine communities; freshwater communities.

The History of Biogeography

In this unit, the authors trace the history of biogeography as a scientific discipline. They highlight how biogeography emerged from the age of exploration in the 15th to 18th centuries when naturalists such as Christopher Columbus, Marco Polo, Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, and others discovered new lands and organisms. They also emphasize how biogeography developed in the 19th to 21st centuries in response to new discoveries and theories in biology and geology such as evolution by natural selection, plate tectonics, molecular genetics, phylogenetics, among others. They also acknowledge the contributions of other influential figures in biogeography such as Joseph Hooker, Philip Sclater, Leon Croizat, Robert MacArthur, Edward O. Wilson, Jared Diamond, and others.

Evolutionary Biogeography

Evolutionary Biogeography

In this unit, the authors explore how evolution shapes biogeographic patterns and processes. They explain how evolution involves changes in the genetic composition of populations and species over time, and how these changes affect their geographic distributions and diversification. They introduce the main mechanisms of speciation and diversification in biogeography, such as allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation, adaptive radiation, hybridization, polyploidy, extinction. They also show how phylogenetic trees and molecular data inform biogeographic hypotheses and analyses, such as ancestral area reconstruction, divergence time estimation, biogeographic regionalization. They also describe the major biogeographic regions and realms of the world, such as Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian, Antarctic.

Ecological Biogeography

In this unit, the authors examine how ecological processes influence biogeographic patterns and dynamics. They discuss how ecological processes involve interactions between organisms and their environment at different levels of organization and scales of space and time. They explain how ecological processes affect population growth, demography, and dispersal in biogeography, such as density dependence, life history strategies, metapopulation dynamics, migration patterns. They also illustrate how communities assemble, change, and function in different biomes and regions, such as island biogeography theory, species-area relationship, species richness gradient, beta diversity, community phylogenetics. They also highlight the main sources and consequences of disturbance, succession, and adaptation in biogeography, such as fire regimes, glacial cycles, climate oscillations, phenotypic plasticity, local adaptation.

Conservation Biogeography

Conservation Biogeography

In this unit, the authors discuss how biogeography informs conservation science and practice. They define conservation biogeography as "the application of biogeographic principles, theories, and analyses to problems regarding biodiversity conservation" (p. 627). They identify the main threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services at global, regional, and local scales, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, overexploitation, pollution, climate change, invasive species, disease outbreaks. They also demonstrate how biogeographic data and models can help identify conservation priorities and strategies, such as hotspot analysis, gap analysis, reserve selection algorithms, connectivity analysis, climate change scenarios. They also address the challenges and opportunities for conservation biogeography in a changing world, such as uncertainty and complexity, scale and context dependence, trade-offs and conflicts, adaptive management and monitoring.


In this unit, the authors summarize the main takeaways and lessons from the textbook. They emphasize how biogeography is a comprehensive and integrative science that spans across space and time, across levels of organization and scales of analysis, across disciplines and methods. They also acknowledge the current gaps and limitations in biogeographic knowledge and research, such as data availability and quality, model assumptions and validation, causal inference and explanation. They also suggest the future directions and prospects for biogeography as a science and a discipline, such as new data sources and technologies, new theoretical frameworks and paradigms, new applications and collaborations.


  • What is the difference between biogeography and ecology?

  • Biogeography and ecology are closely related sciences that both study the distribution and diversity of life on Earth. However, biogeography focuses more on the spatial and temporal patterns of organisms across different regions and periods of time, while ecology focuses more on the interactions of organisms with their environment within a specific area and time.

  • What is the difference between biogeography and evolution?

  • Biogeography and evolution are also closely related sciences that both study the diversity and history of life on Earth. However, biogeography focuses more on the geographic distributions of organisms across space and time, while evolution focuses more on the genetic changes of populations and species over time.

  • What are some examples of biogeographic questions?

  • Some examples of biogeographic questions are: Why are there more species in the tropics than in the poles? How did marsupials evolve in Australia? How did islands influence the diversification of birds? How will climate change affect the distribution of plants? How can we conserve biodiversity in a fragmented landscape?

  • What are some examples of biogeographic methods?

  • Some examples of biogeographic methods are: Mapping and measuring species distributions using field surveys or remote sensing. Inferring historical events and processes using fossils or molecular data. Testing hypotheses and predictions using statistical models or experiments. Addressing contemporary issues using scenarios or simulations.

  • What are some examples of biogeographic applications?

  • Some examples of biogeographic applications are: Identifying biodiversity hotspots or gaps for conservation planning. Predicting species responses or impacts to environmental change or disturbance. Managing invasive species or disease outbreaks. Restoring degraded ecosystems or habitats.



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